Cinematography (PDF) (2022)

Brown, Blain.

2011 • 385 Pages • 24.78 MB • English

+ cinematography + brown

(Video) EGSM 10: Lights, Camera, Etc. (Cinematography)

Page 1

(Video) Cinematography Tutorial for Beginners. Make Great Videos from Day One!

imagemaking for cinematographers & directors theory and practicecinematographysecond editionThis page intentionally left blankimagemaking for cinematographers and directors theory and practicecinematographyblain brownAMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYOFocal Press is an imprint of Elseviersecond edition Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK © 2012 ELSEVIER INC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein). Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brown, Blain. Cinematography : theory and practice : image making for cinematographers and directors / Blain Brown. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-240-81209-0 1. Cinematography. I. Title. TR850.B7598 2012 778.5--dc22 2011010755 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For information on all Focal Press publications visit our website at 11 12 13 14 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the China cinematographyvcontents Introduction xiiiThe Scope of this Book xivTitles and Terminology xivwriting with motion 1Writing with Motion 2Building a Visual World 2The [Conceptual] Tools of Cinematography 4The Frame 4The Lens 6Light and Color 8Texture 9Movement 10Establishing 10Point-of-View 10Putting It All Together 11shooting methods 13What Is Cinematic? 14A Question of Perception 14Visual Subtext and Visual Metaphor 14The Frame 15Static Frame 15Cinema as a Language 16The Shots: Building Blocks of a Scene 17Establishing the Geography 18Character Shots 20Invisible Technique 27The Shooting Methods 27The Master Scene Method 27Coverage 28Overlapping or Triple-Take Method 29In-One 30Freeform Method 30Montage 32Involving The Audience: POV 33visual language 37More Than Just a Picture 38Design Principles 39The Three-Dimensional Field 41Forces Of Visual Organization 45Movement in the Visual Field 51The Rule of Thirds 51Miscellaneous Rules of Composition 51Basic Composition Rules for People 52language of the lens 53The Lens and the Frame 54Foreground/Midground/Background 54Lens Perspective 54Deep Focus 56Selective Focus 61Image Control at the Lens 63Lens Height 64Dutch Tilt 66vivisual storytelling 67Visual Metaphor 68Telling Stories with Pictures 68Lighting As Storytelling 69Film Noir 69Light As Visual Metaphor 70Light and Shadow / Good and Evil 71Fading Flashbulbs 72Visual Poetry 75cinematic continuity 77Shooting For Editing 78Thinking about Continuity 78Types of continuity 78The Prime Directive 81Screen Direction 81Turnaround 85Cheating the Turnaround 87Planning Coverage 87Cuttability 88The 20% and 30 Degree Rules 88Other Issues In Continuity 89Introductions 95Other Editorial Issues In Shooting 96Jump Cuts 96The Six Types Of Cuts 98The Content Cut 98The Action Cut 98The POV Cut 99The Match Cut 100The Conceptual Cut 101The Zero Cut 102lighting basics 103The Fundamentals of Lighting 104What are the Goals of Good Lighting? 104Exposure and Lighting 107Some Lighting Terminology 108Aspects Of Light 110Hard Light and Soft Light 110Direction 113Intensity 114Texture 115Color 115Basic Lighting Techniques 116Back Cross Keys 116Ambient Plus Accents 117Lighting with Practicals 117Lighting through the Window 118Available Natural Light 118Motivated Light 120Day Exteriors 124Fill 124Silks and Diffusion 124Open Shade and Garage Door Light 124Sun as Backlight 125Lighting For High Def Video126cinematographyviilighting sources 129The Tools of Lighting 130Daylight Sources 130HMI Units 130Xenons 135LED Lights 136Tungsten Lights 136Fresnels 136PARs 138HMI PARs 140Soft Lights 140Barger Baglights 141Color-Correct Fluorescents 142Other Types of Units 142Softsun 142Cycs, Strips, Nooks and Broads 143Chinese Lanterns and Spacelights 143Self-Contained Crane Rigs 144Ellipsoidal Reflector Spots 144Balloon Lights 145Handheld Units 145Day Exteriors 145Controlling Light with Grip Equipment 145For More Information On Lighting 146HD cinematography 147High Def and Standard Def 148Analog and Digital Video 148Analog 148Digital Video 149Types of Video Sensors 150Three-Chip vs Bayer Filter Sensors 150Digital Video 151Standard Def 151High Def 151Shooting Formats 1522K, 4K and Higher Resolution Formats 152Digital Compression 152RAW 154Monitoring On the set 155The Waveform Monitor and Vectorscope 156Waveform Monitors 156The Vectorscope 156Video Latitude 157Clipping 158Video Noise and Grain 159The Digital Intermediate (DI) 159The Video Signal 160Interlace Video 160Progressive Video 160NTSC and ATSC 160Colorspace 161SDI 162Setting Up A Color Monitor 162Monitor Setup Procedure 162Camera White Balance 164viiiDigital Video Encoding 165Is It Broadcast Quality? 166Do It in the Camera or in Post? 166The Decision Matrix 16710 Things to Remember When Shooting HD 167Timecode and Edgecode 168Video Frame Rate 168Drop-Frame and Non-Drop-Frame 16829.97 Video 169How Drop Frame Solves the Problem 170To Drop or Not to Drop? 170Timecode Slating 170Tapeless Production 171Metadata 171Tapeless Workflows 171Digital File Types 172Container Files: Quicktime and MXF 172Compression and Codecs 173Intra-frame versus Interframe Compression 173Bit Depth 173MPEG 174Other Codecs 176The Curve 177Controlling the HD Image 179Gain/ISO 180Gamma 180Black Gamma/Black Stretch 180Knee 180Color Saturation 180Matrix 180Color Balance 180exposure 181Exposure: the Easy Way 182What Do We Want Exposure to Do for Us? 182Controlling Exposure 182The Four Elements of Exposure 183The Bottom Line 185How Film and Video Are Different 185Two Types of Exposure 185Light As Energy 186F/Stops 186Exposure, ISO, and Lighting Relationships 186Inverse Square Law and Cosine Law 187ISO/ASA 187Light and Film 188The Latent Image 189Chemical Processing 189Color Negative 190Film’s Response to Light 190Densitometry 191The Log E Axis 193Brightness Perception 194Contrast 194“Correct” Exposure 197Higher Brightness Range in the Scene 198Determining Exposure 198cinematographyixVideo Exposure 198The Tools 199The Incident Meter 199The Reflectance Meter 200The Zone System 200Zones in a Scene 203The Gray Scale 203Why 18%? 203Place and Fall 205Reading Exposure with Ultraviolet 207Exposure and the Camera 207Shutter Speed versus Shutter Angle 208camera movement 209Motivation and Invisible Technique 210Basic Technique 211Types Of Moves 212Pan 212Tilt 212Move In / Move Out 212Zoom 213Punch-in 214Moving Shots 214Tracking 214Countermove 214Reveal 214Circle Track Moves 215Crane Moves 215Rolling Shot 216Camera Mounting 216Handheld 216Camera Head 216Fluid Head 216Geared Head 216Remote Head 216Underslung Heads 216Dutch Head 217The Tripod 217High-Hat 217Rocker Plate 217Tilt Plate 218The Crab Dolly 218Dolly Terminology 218Dance Floor 219Extension Plate 219Low Mode 219Front Porch 220Side Boards 220Risers 220Steering Bar or Push Bar 220Cranes 220Crane/Jib Arm 221Crane Operation 221Non-booming Platforms 222Camera on a Ladder 222Remote on Cranes 222Technocrane 222Cranes on Top of Cranes 222Car Shots 223xCamera Positions for Car Shots 223Vehicle to Vehicle Shooting 223Aerial Shots 224Mini-Helicopters 224Cable-Cam 224Other Types Of Camera Mounts 224Rickshaw, Wheelchair and Garfield 224Steadicam 225Low-Mode Prism 225Crash Cams 225Splash Boxes 225Underwater Housings 226Motion Control 226color 227Color In Visual Storytelling 228The Nature of Light 228The Tristimulus Theory 228Functions of the Eye 229Light and Color 230Basic Qualities of Color 231The Color Wheel 232Color Models 232Controlling Color 235Color Temperature 235Color Balance with Gels and Filters 238Light Balancing Gels 238Conversion Gels 239Light Balancing Gels 241Color Correction Gels 241Correcting Off-Color Lights 244Stylistic Choices in Color Control 244image control 245Color Printing 246Controlling Color and Contrast 247In the Lab 247Bleach-Bypass and Other Processes 248LookUp Tables 2541D LUTs 2553D LUTs 256Camera Filter Types 256Diffusion and Effects Filters 256Contrast Filters 258Effects Filters and Grads 258Color Temperature and Filtration 259Conversion Filters 261Warming and Cooling Filters 262Contrast Control In Black-and-White 262Polarizers 263Density Filters 263IR Filters 264Controlling The Look Of Your Project 264Image Control With The Camera 266Frame Rate 266Shutter Angle 267Time Lapse268cinematographyxioptics & focus 269Physical Basis Of Optics 270Refraction 270Focus 272Mental Focus 274Circle of Confusion 275Depth-of-field 275Depth-of-Field Calculations 276How Not to Get More Depth-of-Field 277Zooms and Depth-of-Field 279Macrophotography 281Close-Up Tools 283Lens Care 285Lens adapters for Video 285set operations 287The Shot List 289The Director Of Photography 289The Team 291Camera Crew 291Operator 291First AC 291Second AC 293Loader 294Data Wrangler 294DIT 294Slating Technique 295TimeCode Slates 296Camera Reports 297Electricians 299Grips 300Other Units 302Coordinating with Other Departments 303Set Procedures 305technical issues 307Flicker 308Filming Practical Monitors 310Monitors and MOS Shooting 311Shooting Process Photography 312Greenscreen/Bluescreen 312Lighting for Bluescreen/Greenscreen 313Dimmers 314Working With Strobes 317High-Speed Photography 319Lighting For Extreme Close-Up 319Underwater Filming 320Measures of Image Quality 320Effects 321Time-Lapse Photography 326Time Slicing 327Sun Location With A Compass 328Transferring Film To Video 331Prepping for Telecine 331Shooting a Gray Card Reference 332Framing Charts 334xiifilm formats 335Aspect Ratios 336Academy Aperture 3361.66:1 and 1.85:1 336Wide Screen 336Alternatives to Anamorphic 3373-Perf 3382-Perf Techniscope 33816mm 340acknowledgments 343the cinematography website 343bibliography 344index 347cinematographyxiiiINTRODUCTIONTo a great extent the knowledge base of the cinematographer over-laps with the knowledge base of the director. The cinematographer must have a solid familiarity with the terms and concepts of direct-ing, and the more a director knows about cinematography the more he or she will be able to utilize these tools and especially be better equipped to fully utilize the knowledge and talent of a good DP (Director of Photography). Any successful director will tell you that one of the real secrets of directing is being able to recognize and maxi-mize what every member of the team can contribute.The DP has some duties that are entirely technical, and the direc-tor has responsibilities with the script and the actors, but in between those two extremes they are both involved with the same basic task: storytelling with the camera — this is what makes the creative collabo-ration between them so important. In that regard, one of the main purposes of this book is to discuss “what directors need to know about the camera” and “what cinematographers need to know about directing,” with the goal of improving communication between them and fostering a more common language for their collaborative efforts. The primary purpose of this book is to introduce cinematography/filmmaking as we practice it on a professional level, whether it be on film, video, digital, High Def or any other imaging format. Sto-rytelling is storytelling and shooting is shooting, no matter what medium you work in. Except for two specific sections that relate to motion picture emulsions and the laboratory, the information here is universal to any form of shooting — film, video, or digital.The first three chapters are a basic introduction to the essential con-cepts of visual storytelling. It is absolutely essential to understand that a cinematographer or videographer cannot be just a technician who sets up “good shots.” Directors vary in how much input they want from a DP in selecting and setting up shots; but the DP must under-stand the methods of visual storytelling in either case. Cinema is a language and within it are the specific vocabularies and sublanguages of the lens, composition, visual design, lighting, image control, continuity, movement, and point-of-view. Learning these languages and vocabularies is a never-ending and a fascinating life-long study. As with any language, you can use it to compose clear and informative prose or to create visual poetry.While wielding these tools to fully utilize the language of cinema, there are, of course, rigorous technical requirements; it is up the DP to ensure that these requirements are met and that everything works properly. Those requirements are covered here as well, as not only are they an integral part of the job, but many seemingly mechanical requirements can also be used as forms of visual expression as well. This is why it is important for the director to have at least a pass-ing knowledge of these technical issues. Another reason is that less experienced directors can get themselves into trouble by asking for something that is not a good idea in terms of time, budget, equip-ment, or crew resources. This is not to suggest that a director should ever demand less than the best or settle for less than their vision. The point is that by know-ing more about what is involved on the technical side, the director can make better choices and work with their DP to think of solu-tions that are better suited to the situation. xivWe Don’t Need No Stinkin’ RulesIt is a well-worn saying that you should “know the rules before you break them.” This is certainly true in filmmaking. Newcomers often try to do things “the way it’s never been done before.” Sometimes (rarely) the results are brilliant, even visionary. In film, however, reshooting is extremely expensive and sometimes impossible.All of the basic rules of filmmaking exist for good reasons: they are the result of over 100 years of practical experience and experimenta-tion. Can you break the rules? Absolutely! Great filmmakers do it all the time. Once you not only know the rules but understand why they exist, it is possible to use a violation of them as a powerful tool. Our emphasis here is to not only explain the rules but also the underlying reasons that they exist.The Scope of this BookWhat does the cinematographer need to know about filmmaking in order to do the job properly? Almost everything.The knowledge base encompasses lenses, exposure, composition, continuity, editorial needs, lighting, grip, color, the language of the camera, even the basic elements of story structure. The job is sto-rytelling with the camera, and the more you know about the ele-ments of that art the better you will be able to assist the director in accomplishing those goals. The DP need not command all these techniques at the level of detail of the editor, the writer, or the key grip, but there must be a firm understanding of the basics and more importantly the possibilities — the tools and their potential to serve the storytelling and the vision of the director. This is especially true as the task of directing is more and more accessible to writers, actors, and others who may not have as broad a background in physical production and the visual side of storytell-ing. In this situation, being a DP who has a thorough command of the entire scope of filmmaking but is able and willing to work as a collaborator without trying to impose their own vision in place of the director’s is a strong asset. By the same token, to have a reputa-tion as a director who can utilize the talents of their creative team and get the best from everybody is also a goal to aim for.In this book we cover the storytelling issues, continuity, and pro-viding what the editor needs as well as optics, special effects, expo-sure, composition, filters, color control, and all the other aspects of cinematography that go into the job — all of them approached from the point of view of their value as storytelling tools. The craft of lighting is included here, but for a much more in-depth and thor-ough discussion of lighting, see the first book, Motion Picture and Video Lighting. It is also important to note that if you are dedicated to the idea of using the medium of cinema to its fullest extent and employing every tool of the art form to serve your story, then light-ing for video or High Def is not essentially different from lighting for film.Titles and TerminologyCinematographer refers to someone who shoots film or video. Direc-tor of Photography refers to a cinematographer on any type of project. Cameraman/camerawoman/cameraperson is interchangeable with either of the above. Although a great deal of production is now done on High Def (HD) video, and HD is clearly the wave of the future, it has become common practice to still refer to it as film and filmmaking.


What are the 3 basic elements of cinematography? ›

So there you have it: exposure, lighting and camera placement and movement.

What is the concept of cinematography? ›

cinematography, the art and technology of motion-picture photography. It involves such techniques as the general composition of a scene; the lighting of the set or location; the choice of cameras, lenses, filters, and film stock; the camera angle and movements; and the integration of any special effects.

What are the five C's of cinematography explain? ›

The 5 Cs are Camera angles, Continuity, Cutting, Close-ups, and Composition.

What is the most important part of cinematography? ›

Composition. One of the most important choices that a Cinematographer makes for every single shot is its composition—or what will be seen in it 3. Composition refers to how each shot is framed and all the elements within that frame.

What skills does a cinematographer need? ›

  • An eye for detail and a mind for fast invention.
  • Thorough understanding of lighting techniques, light colour, shade and manipulation.
  • Strong technical knowledge of cameras and the film production process.
  • Strong communication skills.
  • Strong team management skills.
  • Excellent listening ability.
15 Jul 2022

What are the 4 elements of film? ›

the genre of a film: plot, setting, characters, and theme. These form.

How do I start a cinematography? ›

How to become a cinematographer
  1. Earn a film degree. ...
  2. Practice photography. ...
  3. Become familiar with your equipment. ...
  4. Build your reel. ...
  5. Make connections. ...
  6. Take on entry-level film crew positions.

What is the difference between filmmaking and cinematography? ›

The primary difference between cinematography and filmmaking is that cinematography is the application of camera techniques which determine the visual depiction of the film, while filmmaking is the overarching process of making the entire film itself.

What is example of cinematography? ›

The art or technique of movie photography, including both the shooting and the processing of the image. The definition of cinematography is the art and process of movie photography. An example of cinematography are the decisions made about lighting, camera filters and lenses when shooting a movie scene.

What is another name for cinematography? ›

What is another word for cinematography?
camera workfilm making
picture makingshooting
4 more rows

How do you analyze cinematography? ›

Now that we know the different effects of different angles used in films, let's see how we can analyse them!
  1. Identify the shot angle in the scene.
  2. Identify the general effect of the angle. Identify the atmosphere in the scene. ...
  3. Ground your findings in the context of the film. Identify the film's themes. ...
  4. Write a TEEL paragraph.

What are the six elements of cinematography? ›

Cinematography comprises all on-screen visual elements, including lighting, framing, composition, camera motion, camera angles, film selection, lens choices, depth of field, zoom, focus, color, exposure, and filtration.

What is composition in cinematography? ›

Composition refers to the way elements of a scene are arranged in a camera frame. Shot composition refers to the arrangement of visual elements to convey an intended message.

How many types of camera angles are there? ›

There are three different types of basic camera shots which include: the close-up, medium shot, and the long shot.

How can I improve my cinematography? ›

Top 10 Cinematography Tips:
  1. So get out there are and start shooting. ...
  2. Get out and find your style. ...
  3. Start building relationships now. ...
  4. Be true to your inner voice. ...
  5. Work like mad to learn all the tech and then give yourself the freedom to forget it all. ...
  6. Understand your role and that you are there to serve the director.

What is the job of cinematographer? ›

Also called directors of photography, cinematographers work with directors and film crews to create important visual effects for film and TV. They read through screenplays and choose appropriate lighting, angles, framing, and filters to create the mood of the film.

Is editing part of cinematography? ›

Although the actors and the cinematographers play the primary roles in producing the footage available, it is up to the editor to splice this footage together to create a story. Film editing is part of post-production, or everything that goes on after the actual shooting of the film stops.

What is another name for a cinematographer? ›

A cinematographer is also called the "director of photography," or the DP.

What is a cinematographer salary? ›

High. Average: £1,779Range: £410 - £7,716. The average salary for Cinematographer is £34,892 per year in the London Area.

What makes a great cinematographer? ›

The combination of cinematography techniques, communication skills, and willingness to push limits with experimentation all make for a great director of photography. But a good DP must also have business savvy and diplomatic skills, two areas that will never show on screen.

What are the 3 types of film? ›

Alan Williams distinguishes three main genre categories: narrative, avant-garde, and documentary. With the proliferation of particular genres, film subgenres can also emerge: the legal drama, for example, is a sub-genre of drama that includes courtroom- and trial-focused films.

What is a film language? ›

Film language is a method of narrative expression, which promotes the development of narrative and plot. Film languages are very important methods in filmmaking, when used properly they make a film successful.

What is a film structure? ›

The narrative structure, as the term suggests, is the structural framework for a movie. The story is the action of the movie, and the plot is how the story is told. The narrative structure can be either linear or nonlinear. Linear narrative structure is a movie that moves in chronological order.

Can I teach myself cinematography? ›

If you're really into cinematography, you don't need to go to film school. You can learn it by yourself. Takes a whole lot of hustling though. Watch movies / films / videos you like.

Can I learn cinematography on my own? ›

Do I have to go to film school to become a cinematographer? In other words: Can I learn cinematography on my own? Well, the short answer is yes, you can learn cinematography on your own, but…

Is cinematography hard to learn? ›

Becoming a cinematographer isn't an easy task. It takes years of study, practice, and networking. In addition to a lifetime of learning. If you are passionate about becoming a cinematographer your best bet is go to school, get a camera and start shooting, and network.

Is cinematography a videography? ›

Cinematography is also about getting good footage, but it differs from videography as it typically involves more strategic planning, artistic direction, or artistic decision-making, and requires a large crew or production team.

What to study to become a cinematographer? ›

Here is the list of most popular cinematography courses:
  1. Diploma in Cinematography.
  2. Diploma in Animation.
  3. Diploma in Creative Media Production.
  4. Film Production Diploma.
  5. Diploma in Digital Film and Video.
  6. Diploma in Digital Filmmaking.
  7. Screenwriting Diploma.
  8. Diploma in Digital Filmmaking.

Does a cinematographer edit videos? ›

Cinematographers are not usually involved in the editing and post-production activities.

What are the five principles of film form? ›

Week 3: Five Principles of Film Form
  • What influences how we make meaning of a film? ...
  • Five principles of film form.
  • Function. ...
  • Similarity (parallelism) and repetition. ...
  • Difference and variation. ...
  • Development. ...
  • Unity/Disunity. ...
  • Function.
27 Sept 2013

What are the five aspects of camerawork? ›

5 C's of Cinematography
  • Camera Angles. The camera angle is vital to a stories narrative and the camera positioning helps to drive the story forward. ...
  • Continuity. To hold the viewer's attention throughout the film, continuity is extremely important. ...
  • Cutting. ...
  • Close-ups. ...
  • Composition.
26 May 2017

What are the five elements of a story storyboarding? ›

But when you boil it down, each story is actually made up of five basic story elements:
  • Character.
  • Conflict.
  • Plot.
  • Setting.
  • Theme.
11 Aug 2022

What are aesthetic elements in film? ›

The aesthetic is the way a film's visual and aural features are used to create essentially non-narrative dimensions of the film, including the film's 'look'. Aesthetics can be understand to relate to the style, tone, look or mood of a film.

What are the 8 elements of film? ›

What are the key elements involved:
  • Film Type.
  • Shots.
  • Camera Angles.
  • Lighting.
  • Color.
  • Sound or Audio.
  • Editing.
  • Mise-en-Scene.
3 Mar 2021

What is the 3 act structure in a movie? ›

The three-act-screenplay structure is a story-telling model that goes back to Aristotle's dramatic theory as outlined in Poetics. It is loosely defined as a narrative with a beginning, middle, and end. We can also think of the three-act structure as the Setup, the Confrontation, and the Resolution.

What is the content of a film? ›

Content is what is being presented to the audience, or what the movie is about on the surface. Form is how the movie is presented. For example, two very different films can share the same content, form being what makes them different from one another.

What are the six elements of cinematography? ›

Cinematography comprises all on-screen visual elements, including lighting, framing, composition, camera motion, camera angles, film selection, lens choices, depth of field, zoom, focus, color, exposure, and filtration.

What are the 4 elements of film? ›

the genre of a film: plot, setting, characters, and theme. These form.

What are the four basic camera controls? ›

There are four basic camera controls: ISO speed/sensitivity, Shutter Speed, Aperture and White Balance. Most cameras, even the bottom end ones, allow you access to at least some of those. Film cameras don't have white balance (the color balance is locked in by the manufacturer), but they do have the other three.

What are the 7 steps in storyboarding? ›

Let's take a look at what the 7 steps in storyboarding are.
  1. 1️⃣ Set Goals for Your Project.
  2. 2️⃣ Source Ideas and References.
  3. 3️⃣ Carefully Consider the Timeline.
  4. 4️⃣ Define Key Video Scenes.
  5. 5️⃣ Decide on a Level of Detail.
  6. 6️⃣ Sketch Out All Scenes.
  7. 7️⃣ Double Check Everything.

What comes first script or storyboard? ›

Even if you have a vision of how you would like your animated video to look, you cannot create a storyboard until you have the script completed. Trying to create a storyboard without a script is essentially putting the cart before the horse.

What are the three aesthetic qualities? ›

The aesthetic qualities most discussed by art critics are the literal qualities, the design qualities, and the expressive qualities.

What is meant by mise en scene? ›

Translated from French, it means "setting the stage" but, in film analysis, the term mise en scene refers to everything in front of the camera, including the set design, lighting, and actors. Mise en scene in film is the overall effect of how it all comes together for the audience.

What are examples of aesthetic features? ›

For example, you can use allegory, alliteration, metaphor, or euphemism. Also, tools like hyperbole, irony, personification, and simile often appear in writing.


1. Best Free Resources For Making Short Films
(Film Riot)
2. The Best in Cinematography
3. Ultimate Guide to Camera Shots: Every Shot Size Explained [The Shot List, Ep 1]
4. Ultimate Guide to Camera Angles: Every Camera Shot Explained [Shot List, Ep. 3]
5. Cinematography Style: Gordon Willis
(In Depth Cine)
(Ch-05: PRABANDHAN [Social Science - III])

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