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J Bus Res. 2020 Sep; 117: 280–283.
Published online 2020 Jun 4. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.059
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The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown and social distancing mandates have disrupted the consumer habits of buying as well as shopping. Consumers are learning to improvise and learn new habits. For example, consumers cannot go to the store, so the store comes to home. While consumers go back to old habits, it is likely that they will be modified by new regulations and procedures in the way consumers shop and buy products and services. New habits will also emerge by technology advances, changing demographics and innovative ways consumers have learned to cope with blurring the work, leisure, and education boundaries.
Keywords: COVID Pandemic, Consumer habits, New regulations for shopping, Customer experience
The purpose of this research paper is to examine the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on consumer behavior. Will the consumers permanently change their consumption habits due to lockdown and social distancing or will they go back to their old habits once the global crisis is over? Will there be new habits consumers will acquire due to new regulations related to air travel, shopping at the shopping centers and attending concerts and sports events? Will consumers find that going to a store or attending an event in person is much of a hassle, and therefore, it is better to let the store or the event come to home? To some extent, this has been happening for quite some time in sports tournaments and entertainment by broadcasting them on television and radio.
All consumption is location and time bound. Consumers develop habits over time about what to consume, when and where (Sheth, 2020a, Sheth, 2020b). Of course, this is not limited to consumption. It is also true of shopping, searching for information and post consumption waste disposal. And consumer behavior is highly predictable, and we have many good predictive models and consumer insights based on past repetitive buying behavior at the individual level.
While consumption is habitual it is also contextual. Context matters and there are four major contexts which govern or disrupt consumer habits. The first is change in the social context by such life events as marriage, having children and moving from one city to another. The social context includes workplace, community, neighbors, and friends. The second context is technology. And as breakthrough technologies emerge, they break the old habits. The most dramatic technology breakthroughs in recent years are smart phones, internet and ecommerce. Online search and online ordering have dramatically impacted the way we shop and consumer products and services.
A third context that impacts consumption habits is rules and regulations especially related to public and shared spaces as well as deconsumption of unhealthy products. For example, consumption of smoking, alcohol, and firearms are regulated consumption by location. Of course, public policy can also encourage consumption of societally good products and services such as solar energy, electric cars, and mandatory auto and home insurance services and vaccines for children.
The fourth and less predictable context are the ad hoc natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and global pandemics including the Covid-19 pandemic we are experiencing today. Similarly, there are regional conflicts, civil wars as well as truly global wars such as the World War II, cold war, and Great Depression of the late twenties and the Great Recession of 2008–2009. All of them significantly disrupted both consumption as well as production and supply chain. The focus of this paper is to examine both the immediate as well as the long-term impact of Covid-19 on consumption and consumer behavior.
2. Immediate impact on consumer behavior
As mentioned before, all consumption and consumer behavior are anchored to time and location. Since World War II, more and more women have been working resulting in reduction of discretionary time. It is estimated that today more than 75 percent for all women with children at home are working fulltime. This has resulted in time shortage and time shift in family as well as personal consumption. Monday through Fridays, no one is at home between 8am to 5pm for service technicians to do installations and maintenance of appliances as well as repairs of broken heating and cooling systems. The supplier has to make appointments with the household to ensure there will be someone at home to open the door.
There is also time shortage as the discretionary time of the homemaker is now nondiscretionary due to her employment. This time shortage has resulted in consumers ordering online and have products delivered at home. Similarly, vacations are no longer two or three weeks at a time but are more minivacations organized around major holidays such as Easter, Christmas, Thanksgiving, Memorial Day, and Labor Day extended weekends.
With lockdown and social distancing, consumers’ choice of the place to shop is restricted. This has resulted in location constraint and location shortage. We have mobility shift and mobility shortage. Working, schooling and shopping all have shifted and localized at home. At the same time, there is more time flexibility as consumers do not have to follow schedules planned for going to work or to school or to shop or to consume.
Shortage of space at home is creating new dilemmas and conflicts about who does what in which location space at home. As homo sapiens, we are generally more territorial and each one needs her or his space, we are all struggling with our privacy and convenience in consumption.
Fig. 1 summarizes eight immediate effects of Covid-19 pandemic on consumption and consumer behavior.
Immediate Impact of Covid-19 on Consumption Behavior.
1. Hoarding. Consumers are stockpiling essential products for daily consumption resulting in temporary stockouts and shortages. This includes toilet paper, bread, water, meat, disinfecting and cleaning products.
Hoarding is a common reaction to managing the uncertainty of the future supply of products for basic needs. Hoarding is a common practice when a country goes through hyperinflation as it is happening in Venezuela. In addition to hoarding, there is also emergence of the gray market where unauthorized middlemen hoard the product and increase the prices. This has happened with respect to PPE (personal protection equipment) products for healthcare workers including the N95 masks. Finally, the temporary extra demand created by hoarding, also encourages marketing of counterfeit products. We have not done enough empirical research on the economic and the psychology of hoarding in consumer behavior.
2. Improvisation. Consumers learn to improvise when there are constraints. In the process, existing habits are discarded and new ways to consume are invented. The coronavirus unleashed the creativity and resilience of consumers for such tradition bound activities as weddings and funeral services. Sidewalk weddings and Zoom funeral services substitute for the traditional location centric events. This was also true for church services especially on Easter Sunday.
Improvisation to manage shortage of products or services is another area of future research. It leads to innovative practices and often leads to alternative option to location centric consumption such as telehealth and online education. Once again, there is no systemic empirical or scientific research on improvisation. The closest research is on improvisation is Jugaad in India. It means developing solutions that work by overcoming constraints imposed by social norms or government policy. Jugaad also means doing more with less, seeking opportunity in adversity and thinking and acting flexibly and following the heart (Radjou, Prabhu and Ahujo, 2012).
3. Pent-up Demand. During times of crisis and uncertainty the general tendency is to postpone purchase and consumption of discretionary products or services. Often, this is associated with large ticket durable goods such as automobiles, homes, and appliances. It also includes such discretionary services as concerts, sports, bars, and restaurants. This results in shift of demand from now into the future. Pent up demand is a familiar consequence when access to market is denied for a short period of time for services such as parks and recreation, movies, and entertainment. While economists have studied impact of pent up demand on the GDP growth, there is very little research in consumer behavior about the nature and scope of pent up demand.
4. Embracing Digital Technology. Out of sheer necessity, consumers have adopted several new technologies and their applications. The obvious example is Zoom video services. Just to keep up with family and friends, most households with the internet have learned to participate in Zoom meetings. Of course, it has been extended to remote classes at home for schools and colleges and to telehealth for virtual visits with the physician and other health care providers.
Most consumers like social media including Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube, WeChat, LinkedIn, and others. The internet is both a rich medium and has global reach. The largest nations in population are no longer China and India. They are Facebook, YouTube, and WhatsApp. Each one has more than a billion subscribers and users. This has dramatically changed the nature and scope of word of mouth advices and recommendations as well as sharing information. One of the fastest growing areas is influencer marketers. Many of them have millions of followers. Impact of digital technology in general and social media in particular on consumer behavior is massive in scale and pervasive in consumer’s daily life. It will be interesting to see if technology adoption will break the old habits. While we have studied diffusion of innovation for telephones, television, and the internet, we have not experienced a global adoption of social media in highly compressed cycle.
5. Store Comes Home. Due to complete lockdown in countries like India, China, Italy, and other nations, consumers are unable to go to the grocery store or the shopping centers. Instead, the store comes home. So does work and education. This reverses the flow for work, education, health and purchasing and consumption. In home delivery of everything including streaming services such as Disney, Netflix, and Amazon Prime is breaking the odd habits of physically going to brick and mortar places. It is also enhancing convenience and personalization in consumer behavior. What we need is to empirically study how “IN-home everything” impacts consumer’s impulse buying and planned vs unplanned consumption.
6. Blurring of Work-Life Boundaries. Consumers are prisoners at home with limited space and too many discrete activities such as working, learning, shopping, and socialization. This is analogous to too many needs and wants with limited resources. Consequently, there is blurring of boundaries between work and home and between tasks and chats. Some sort of schedule and compartmentalization are necessary to make home more efficient and effective.
7. Reunions with Friends and Family. One major impact of the coronavirus is to get in touch with distant friends and family, partly to assure that they are okay but partly to share stories and experience. This resembles high school or college reunions or family weddings. What is ad hoc event to keep in touch is now regular and scheduled get togethers to share information and experiences. Symbolically, we are all sitting on our porch and talking to our neighbors globally. The global reach of the social get togethers through social media such as Zoom and WhatsApp is mind boggling. We need to study sociological and cultural assimilations of consumption practices. Similar to the classic studies such as Reisman et al., 1950, Linder, 1970, Putnam, 2000, we should expect dramatic changes in consumer behavior as a consequence of speedier and universal adoption of new technologies accelerated by the Covid pandemic.
8. Discovery of Talent. With more flexible time at home, consumers have experimented with recipes, practiced their talent and performed creative and new ways to play music, share learning, and shop online more creatively. With some of them going viral, consumers are becoming producers with commercial possibilities. YouTube and its counterparts are full of videos which have the potential for innovation and commercial successes.
3. Will old habits die or return?
It is expected that most habits will return back to normal. However, it is inevitable that some habits will die because the consumer under the lockdown condition has discovered an alternative that is more convenient, affordable, and accessible. Examples include streaming services such as Netflix and Disney. They are likely to switch consumers from going to movie theatres. This is similar to ride sharing services such as Uber which is more user friendly than calling a taxi service. Due to coronavirus, consumers may find it easier to work at home, learn at home and shop at home. In short, what was a peripheral alternative to the existing habit now becomes the core and the existing habit becomes the peripheral.
There is a universal law of consumer behavior. When an existing habit or a necessity is given up, it always comes back as a recreation or a hobby. Examples include hunting, fishing, gardening, baking bread, and cooking. It will be interesting to see what existing habits which are given up by adopting the new ways will come back as hobbies. In other words, will shopping become more an outdoor activity or hobby or recreation?
Modified Habits. In most cases, existing habits of grocery shopping and delivery will be modified by the new guidelines and regulations such as wearing masks and keeping the social distance. This is evident in Asia where consumers wear masks before they go for shopping or use the public transit systems. Modified habits are more likely in the services industries especially in personal services such as beauty parlors, physical therapies, and fitness places. It will also become a reality for attending museums, parks and recreation centers, and concerts and social events, just to name a few.
New Habits. There are three factors which are likely to generate new habits. The first is public policy. Just as we are used to security checks at the airports after 9/11, there will be more screening and boarding procedures including taking the temperature, testing for the presence of the virus and boarding the flight. All major airlines are now putting new procedures for embarking and disembarking passengers as well as meal services. As mentioned before, government policy to discourage or encourage consumption is very important to shape future consumptions.
As mentioned earlier a second major driver of consumer behavior is technology. It has transformed consumer behavior significantly since the Industrial Revolution with the invention of automobiles, appliances, and airplanes. This was followed by the telephone, television, internet and now the social media and the user generated content. The digital technology is making wants into needs. For example, we did not miss the cell phone but today you cannot live without it. Today internet is as important as electricity and more important than television. How technology transforms wants into needs has significant impact on developing new habits such as online shopping, online dating, or online anything. More importantly it has equally significant impact on the family budget between the old necessities (food, shelter, and clothing) in the new necessities (phone, internet, and apps).
The third context which generates new habits is the changing demographics (Sheth and Sisodia, 1999). A few examples will illustrate this. As advanced economies age, new needs for health preservation (wellness) and wealth preservation (retirement) arise. Also, aging population worries about personal safety and the safety of their possessions. Finally, their interest in recreation (both active and passive) changes as compared to the younger population. Similarly, as more women enter the workforce, the family is behaving more like a roommate family. Eating meals together at home every evening is no longer possible. And the dinner together is more of a chore to be completed as fast as possible. Right after the dinner each family member goes to their own private room or space and engage in text messages, YouTube, or watching television. Shared consumption is giving way to individual consumption at the convenience for each family member.
There is also a growing trend of living alone by choice. More than one third of the U.S. households today are single adult households. This is due to delay in first time marriage from age eighteen to age twenty-nine. And with aging of the population, many senior citizens (especially women) are living alone by choice. As a single person household, new habits are formed about what to buy, and how much to buy and from where to buy. In conclusion, changing demographics, public policy and technology are major contextual forces in developing new habits as well as giving up old habits.
4. Managerial implications
There are three managerial implications from the impact of Covid-19 on consumer behavior. First, just as consumers have learned to improvise, business also has to learn to improvise and become more resident during the pandemic crisis. Unfortunately, companies are governed by formal processes and they are often unable to change them quickly. This has been evident in the government’s inability to process the PPP (payroll protection program) loans in the U.S. as well as applying for unemployment benefits.
Fortunately, as more large enterprises have transitioned to cloud computing, it has been easier to improvise. This has been the case with supermarkets and large retailers such as Walmart and Target. The latter, in any case, were converging their brick and mortar stores with their online shopping and even capable of omnichannel delivery. In short, companies can learn how to make their infrastructure, systems and processes to be more resilient; and in the process, manage global crises such as the Covid-19.
A second managerial implication is matching demand and supply. At each retailer ranging from the supermarkets to hyper stores to drug stores, there were chronic shortages due to hoarding and “run on the bank” mentality of consumers in a crisis. Supply chain, logistics, and warehousing operations are critical functions which need to be integrated with the volatile fluctuations in demand. In other words, unlike the current practice of stocking the products on the shelf with a backup inventory in the back of the store, it will be increasingly necessary to encourage online procurement and reverse the process from the merchandise waiting on the shelf for the customer to customer ordering first and the supermarket warehouse assembling the order and delivering it to the customer. As mentioned above, customers coming to the store is not the same as store going to the customer.
A third implication for management is that consumers will go back to their old habits unless the technology they learn to use such as Zoom video services and online ordering brings significant changes in their lives. Customers experience in the virtual world as well as post purchase services (customer support) will be strategic investments.
5. Research implications
As the lockdown and social distancing disrupted the whole range of consumer behavior (ranging from problem recognition to search from information to shopping to delivery to consumption and waste disposal), it has generated several new research opportunities anchored to anchored to the real world. These areas of empirical research with some theoretical propositions on hoarding, blurring the work-life boundaries, use of social media in a crisis are good opportunities to enrich the discipline of consumer behavior.
A social major area for the academic research has to do with consumer resilience and improvisation. It is a new field of research and the Covid-19 crisis has surfaced it as a great research opportunity. For example, are there cultural differences in improvisation across the globe? What are the different techniques used by consumers globally to isolate themselves from the infection?
Finally, Covid-19 has increased the use of social media on Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Zoom. They are generating enormous amount of data on word of mouth. Current analytic techniques are not as useful with video conversations. Just as we developed Natual Language Processing (NLP) to analyze the text data, we will have to develop other techniques to analyze the video content probably anchored to machine learning and artificial intelligence (Sheth, 2020a, Sheth, 2020b). The virtual world is becoming more interesting to consumers compared to the physical world as we have seen in video games and virtual sports. Will artificial become real? For example, is a relationship with a chatbot girlfriend more comfortable and enjoyable as compared to a real girlfriend or boyfriend? In a recent article in Wall Street Journal, Parmy Olson describes several anecdotes of how individuals are interacting with chatbots. According to the author, Microsoft XiaIce social chatbot has more than 660 million users in China alone. In short, the artificial has become real.
The lockdown and social distancing to combat the covid-19 virus has generated significant disruptions on consumer behavior. All consumption is time bound and location bound. With time flexibility but location rigidity, consumers have learned to improvise in creative and innovative ways. The work-life boundaries are now blurred as people work at home, study at home, and relax at home. Since the consumer is unable to go to the store, the store has to come to the consumer.
As consumers adapt to the house arrest for a prolonged period of time, they are likely to adopt newer technologies which facilitate work, study and consumption in a more convenient manner. Embracing digital technology is likely to modify existing habits. Finally, public policy will also impose new consumption habits especially in public places such as airports, concerts, and public parks.
Jagdish N. Sheth is Charles H. Kellstadt Professor of Business in the Goizueta Business School at Emory University. He is globally known for his expertise in consumer behavior, relationship marketing, competitive strategy, and geopolitical analysis. Professor Sheth has over 50 years of combined experience in teaching and research at the University of Southern California, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Columbia University, MIT, and Emory University. Professor Sheth is the recipient of all four top awards given by the American Marketing Association: the Richard D. Irwin Distinguished Marketing Educator Award, the Charles Coolidge Parlin Award for market research, the P.D. Converse Award for outstanding contributions to theory in marketing, and the William Wilkie Award for marketing for a better society. Professor Sheth is the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate in Science, awarded by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2016), and Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy, awarded by Shiv Nadar University (2017). Professor Sheth has authored or coauthored more than three hundred papers and several books. His latest book is Genes, Climate and Consumption Culture: Connecting the Dots (2017). He is the co-founder, with his wife Madhuri Sheth, of the Sheth Family Foundation, which contributes to many charities both in India and in Atlanta.
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Impacts of COVID-19 on Consumer's Shopping Behaviour
The widespread lockdowns of the economy at the onset of the pandemic have prompted panic buying and led to a short- term spike in demand for long-life staple foods and freezer-safe products, such as meat cuts, canned foods and cereals.
One of the most influential elements on consumer behavior is that of marketing and advertising campaigns that businesses have executed. Advertising is used to communicate a message to the consumer, while also convincing them to make a purchase.
The impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is being felt by all businesses around the world. Leaders are navigating a broad range of interrelated issues that span from keeping their employees and customer safe, shoring-up cash and liquidity, reorienting operations and navigating complicated government support programs.
The pandemic impacts all aspects of society
Millions of girls in some countries might not be going back at all, putting them at risk of adolescent pregnancy, child marriage and violence. Businesses closed too, leading to the equivalent of 255 million full-time jobs lost, in terms of working hours, in 2020.
Consumer behavior is influenced by many factors such as situation, psychological, environmental and marketing factors, personal factors, family, and culture. Businesses try to collect data so that they can make decisions on how they can reach their target audience in the most efficient way.
- Psychological Factors. Human psychology plays a major role in understanding consumer behaviour. ...
- Motivation. Motivation to do something often influences the buying behaviour of the person. ...
- Perception. ...
- Learning. ...
- Attitudes and Beliefs. ...
- Social Factors. ...
- Family. ...
- Reference Groups.
There are four psychological factors that influence consumer behaviour: Motivation, perception, learning, and attitude or belief system.
Why Is Consumer Behavior Important in Marketing? By understanding how buyers think, feel and decide, businesses can determine how best to market their products and services. This helps marketers predict how their customers will act, which aids in marketing existing products and services.
Even a small downturn in consumer spending damages the economy. As it drops off, economic growth slows. Prices drop, creating deflation. If slow consumer spending continues, the economy contracts.
This chart shows us clearly the impact to global ecommerce revenues the pandemic has had, adding an additional 19% sales growth for 2020, and additional 22% sales growth to the existing 9% and 12% regular forecast sales growth rates, respectively.
The pandemic was accompanied by historic drops in output in almost all major economies. U.S. GDP fell by 8.9 percent in the second quarter of 2020 (figure 3-3), the largest single-quarter contraction in more than 70 years (BEA 2021c). Most other major economies fared even worse.
In addition, lockdown or home confinement measures make people feel bored and isolated, negatively affecting their psychological health (10, 11). These adverse impacts on mental health can cause harmful lifestyle changes such as increasing unhealthy eating habits (12–15), sedentary behavior, or sleeping disorders (16).
The pandemic impacts all aspects of society
Millions of girls might not be going back – putting them at risk of adolescent pregnancy, child marriage and violence. Businesses closed too, leading to the equivalent of 400 million full-time jobs lost in terms of working hours.
The COVID-19 crisis may be changing the culture of the United States as it in effect changes the ways populations around the world work, go to school, seek entertainment, understand their moral obligations to others, and interact with every institution in society.
There are ongoing health impacts from 'long COVID' as well as from delays in care seeking and reprioritisation of resources. Deficiencies in home and community care infection prevention and control measures, and inequalities in the structure and funding of social care provision, have been laid bare.
Life style of an individual can be used as a significant variable for analyzing consumer behavior. Desired life style determines consumer's choice and the choice is a reflection of the life style. The income of an individual and the price of goods at a given time influence the life style of a person.
Factors that influence consumer behavior include motivation, perception, learning, feelings, personal preferences, thinking, social norms, cultural values, trends, group influence, family influence, cultural influence, sub-cultural influence, environment, economy, culture, marketing, age, prevailing circumstances, and ...
Values are what we place importance on and influence the types of products we buy in myriad situations. Social class is where we stand in society compared to others based on income, education and occupation. While education and occupation influence our purchase desires, income determines our actual purchasing power.
The personal factors include age, occupation, lifestyle, social and economic status and the gender of the consumer. These factors can individually or collectively affect the buying decisions of the consumers.
There are four types of consumer behavior: habitual buying behavior, variety-seeking behavior, dissonance-reducing buying behavior, complex buying behavior. Consumer behavior types are determined by what kind of product a consumer needs, the level of involvement, and the differences that exist between brands.
Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services. Consumer behaviour consists of how the consumer's emotions, attitudes, and preferences affect buying behaviour.
Categories that Effect the Consumer Buying Decision Process
A consumer, making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: Personal. Psychological. Social.
Understanding consumer behaviour is important for businesses because it can help them to make better decisions about their products and services. By understanding why people purchase certain products and how they use them, businesses can adapt their offerings to better suit the needs and wants of their target market.
- Need identification to buy the product .
- Information search relating to the product.
- Listing of alternative brands.
- Evaluating the alternative (cost-benefit analysis)
- Purchase decision.
- Post-purchase evaluation by the marketer.
When a consumer is having an experience of using a product in past, he will tend to have positive opinion about it. Therefore the marketer can change the attitude of consumer by focusing on the utilitarian function which the consumers are not aware of. Eg: Hit which can be used to kill mosquito and cockroach.
Like culture, it affects consumer behavior by shaping individuals' perceptions of their needs and wants. People in the same social class tend to have similar attitudes, live in similar neighborhoods, attend the same schools, have similar tastes in fashion, and shop at the same types of stores.
Social impact can be defined as the effect of people on other people. A consumer boycott is a type of consumer behaviour in which consumers collectively prefer not to use their purchasing power towards a product, brand or all products of a country and boycott them.
In 2020, 6.0 percent of companies canceled, 9.7 percent postponed, 8.2 percent decreased, and 1.5 increased some of their budgeted capital expenditures during the coronavirus pandemic. A total of 1.7 percent of companies introduced new unbudgeted capital expenditures.
In the last three months, personal health has remained the top priority for consumers, while fear over financial security has risen. Even as restrictions lift, retail footfall remains below pre-pandemic levels, and consumer confidence in visiting public places remains low, although there are hopeful signs.
The pandemic was accompanied by historic drops in output in almost all major economies. U.S. GDP fell by 8.9 percent in the second quarter of 2020 (figure 3-3), the largest single-quarter contraction in more than 70 years (BEA 2021c). Most other major economies fared even worse.
For the majority of consumers who say they have changed where they shop, fifty-nine percent are now shopping at big box retailers such as Target and Walmart more frequently, as well as doing more research online before making purchases in-store (43%) and shopping more at local, independently-owned retailers (27%).
While retail e-commerce grew, sales in some industries declined from 2019 to 2020 as pandemic-related lockdowns kept people at home, working, shopping and even studying online.
As detailed above, the COVID-19 crisis accelerated an expansion of e-commerce towards new firms, customers and types of products. For individuals, e-commerce enables physical distancing while retaining access to the full product variety.
The retail industry, in particular, has been severely affected since the government asked people to quarantine themselves, which greatly restricted face-to-face service in stores. Our lifestyles as consumers have also been forced to change dramatically.
The proportion of US drinkers classified as generally 'comfortable' with life has shot up to 60%, compared with 35% in August 2020, and as a result have become more content shopping in stores, socialising, and going to events.
New buying behaviors in this new normal
Why, what and how consumers buy is changing due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Consumer priorities have become centered on the most basic needs, sending demand for hygiene, cleaning and staples products soaring, while non-essential categories slump.
The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed healthcare systems around the world, having a knock-on effect on the diagnosis and treatment of other diseases. Social distancing and lockdowns have reduced diagnosis rates of infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, as would be expected with reduced social contact.
|Percent of establishments||84%|
|Percent of industry employment in these establishments||90%|
|Employment in establishments||215,045|