The Five C's of Cinematography: Motion Picture... (PDF) (2022)

Joseph V. Mascelli

1998 • 246 Pages • 59.9 MB • English

+ cinematography

Posted March 01, 2021 • Submitted by hayes.ola

(Video) Interaktiv PDF Video einfügen InDesign CS 5 [Tutorial Deutsch]

To download page

The Five C's of Cinematography: Motion Picture... (PDF) (3) View on Amazon The Five C's of Cinematography: Motion Picture... (PDF) (4) Free on Perlego

(Video) Shree Harini Swabhavik Chesta | શ્રીહરિની સ્વાભાવિક ચેષ્ટા | 3D Animation |Chestana Pado| Kundaldham
(Video) Left Handed Highland Cow with Chapters

Page 1

(Video) Love In The Dark

MOTION PICTUREFILMING TECHNIQUESTHEFIVE'SOF•JOSEPH V. MASCELLICONTENTSCAMERA ANGLES.11CONTINUITY.67CUTIING..147CLOSE-UPS.173COMPOSITION197INDEX .245CREDITS.. .250INTRODUCTIONBYARTHUR C. MILLER, A.S.CWhile production of motion pictures has changed considerably since Iphotographed Th e Perils of Pauline in 1914, some aspects -particularlythose involving story telling -arc still the same as they were half acentury ago.Motion pictures arc faster paced for today's more sophisticated audi-ences. Television dramas now introduce the characters , set the scene andestablish story line in a few minutes. To accomplish this, early films tooka reel or more. Today's uses of the moving ca mera - especially helicoptershots -and wide-screen form ats permit more continuous filming withfewer editoria l cuts. Modern filming trends are moving away from the-atrical effects. and toward morc natura l lighting and ca mera treatment,Involving the audience more deeply with the screen story. Th at is good!Motion picture production was vas tly differen t in 1908, when it wasmy good fortune as a boy of 14 to become assistant - or "camera boy" ashe was then called -to Fre d J. Balshofcr, a pioneer motion picture pro·ducer , director and ca meraman. Mr. Balshofer initiated many filmin gtechniques -such as strict adherence to directional continuity -whichhave become accepted production standards. The following year I wentto work for Edwin S. Porter -who in 1903 had produced what is nowconsidered the first story film - T he Great T rain Robbery. Early audiencesrecognized these story pictures as resembling stage plays -because oftheir continuity, which was a great advance over the animated movi esnapshots presented until then.This year marks the golden anniversary of the release of The Birth ofa Nation, produced and directed by D. W. Griffith, the acknowledged orig-inator of screen syntax -as we now know it.Yet, despite the influence on cinematographers everywhere exerted bythese outstanding pioneers -and by many com petent cinematographersand directors of today and yesterday -not one of these masters of ourMr. Milleris a three-rime AcademyAward winner for Cinematograp hy. He isa past President of the American Societyof Cinematographers. and its presentTreasurer and 1\1useum Curator; AssociateEditor of the American CinematographerManual and Chairman of the A.S.C. Pub-lications Committee. Me. Miller is an hon-orary member of Delta Kappa Alpha cin-ema fraternity. and active in many tech-nical and cultural areas of the motion pic-ture industry.craft has ever written in clear words just how the ca mera can be used togreater advantage in recording screen stories. The only way to learn toshoot better pictu res was to serve an apprenticeship un der a competentteacher - or to study films and try to figure out how they were made.To my knowledge this is the first book that ha s attempted to translatethe many intangibles of film making into definitive explanations. In myopinion, no one is more qualified to write this book than Joe Mascelli.Mascelli is a rarity. He combines the wide experience of a working camera-man - who films both thea trical and non-theatrical pictures - with a vastknowledge of all ph ases of motion picture production, along with thedesire to instruct and inspire. He is an astute student of motion picturehistory - particularly cinematography - and has researched, studied andanalyzed the work of motion picture photograph ers, from Billy Bitzer toLeon Shamroy. He has the unique ability to clarify shooting techniques forthose who find the complexities of motion picture production mystifying.I believe th at this book will be truly valu able to cinematographers oflimited experience, and particularly to students studying motion pictureproduction . By understanding and applying the principles presented inthis book, the reader will be able to visualize a story in motion pictureterms. For, above all, it is the power of visua lization th at makes the suc-cessful cinematographer.Reading the script of THE FIVE C's was for me both interesting andthought provoking. I hope you find this book as stimulating and tn form a-uve as I have.PROLOGUEIn 1928, when Eastman Kodak introduced 16mm Kodacolor - a well-known physicist remarked : "It's impossible - but not quite!~On many occasions du ring the years devoted to preparation and writingof this book, I have felt that defining, explaining , clarifying and graphicallyillustrating motion picture filming techniques in an easy -to -understandway - is impossible - but not quite.Most professional s instinctively know the right way to film the subject- hut seem unable to explain just how they do it. They have learned whatnot to do, either from past experience or by serving as apprentices undercapable technicians. However - alth ough the)' arc employing the rules con-stantly!- few can explain the rules by which motion pictures are filmed .Many cameramen - particularly those shooting non-theatrical pictures-cbecomc so involved in the technical aspects of movie making that theytend to forget that the primary purpose of a motion picture is to tell anintcrcsun q story! There is much marc to shooting motion pictures thanthreading a roll of film in a camera, and exposing the picture correctly.The aim s of this book are to mak e the reader aware of the m anyfactors involved in telling a story with film. and to show how theatricalfilming techniques can be successfully applied to non-thea trical pict ures.There is no need for tremendous budgets to shoot a motion picture prop-erly l The same profession al rules may be successfully applied to a docu-mentary film report.The definitions, rules and recommendations in this book are not meantto be absolute. Most of these precepts have gradually developed throughthe years, and have become routine procedures. In a few cases, I have hadto discover the hidden rule by \v-hich certain types of filming is accom-plished. I have also had to invent names - such as Action Al.is and Triple-Take Technique - for definition and expl anation of shooting methods.The production of a motion picture, par ticularly a non-the atrical film.can be a highly personal undertaki ng. It is up to the indi vidu al to accept.change or twist the rule to fit his particular purpose. Filming methods arecontinuously changing. The so-called "new wave" has shattered manyestablished techniques -with some suc cess. The coming generations offilm makers may find some of today's standard filming methods stifling.and even obsolete. Film production can use changes -but they shouldbe changes for the better. Changes that involve the audience more deeply'in the screen story are constructive and always welcome.It is importan t. however , that ambitious movie makers first learn therules before breaking them. Learn the right way to film, learn the accept-able methods, learn how audiences become involved in the screen story -and what viewers have been conditioned to accept through years of moviegoing. Experiment; be bold; shoot in an un orthodox fashion! But. firstlearn the correct way. don't simply do it a "new" way - which . very likely.was new thirty years ago! -because of a lack of knowledge of properfilmin g techniques.Learn to know your audience. Place yourself in the viewer's position.Be truly objective in judging a new method or idea. Try it. If it plays _ ifit is acceptable - and the audience comprehends and enjoys it -use it.If it simply confuses, teases or even distracts the audience from the narra-tive - discard it!Experiences in both theatrical and non-theatrical film making has ledme to the conclusion that the documentary - in-plant, military, ind ustrialand educational - cameraman working with a sma ll crew, often on remotelocations, without a detailed script or other benefits of a studio productiondepartmen t. must have knowledge and experience reac hing far beyondthat of a technical nature. He must often act as a camera man/ directorand later edit his own film. His work ma y cover everything from conceiv-ing and producing the picture - to putting it on the screen!This book will, I sincerely hope, provide such ind ividuals with grea terinsight into the many ways in which a movie narrative may be filmed _with the assurance that the picture can be edited into an interes ting ,coherent, smooth-flowing screen story.The serious student should also consider a sixth "C" -Chea ting _which can not be learned from this or any other book! Cheating is the artof rearranging people, objects or actions, during filming or editing , sothat the screen effect is enhanced. Only experience will teach the camera-man and film editor when and how to cheat. The secret of effective cheat-ing is in knowing how to make changes without the audience being awareof the cheat. The only crime in cheating is in getting caught! A player'sheight may be cheated higher in a two-shot; or the corner of a lamp m aybe cheated out of a close-up; or portions of the event may be cheated outof the final edited picture- for a better screen result. The beginn er may beeither afraid to cheat, or he may chea t too much. The experienced tech-nician knows exactly how far cheating can be carried before the viewer isaware of a change.This volume is not intended to be a means to an end - but a beginning !My purpose is to make you aware of the many facets of movie making.With that attitude you may analyze any filming situation, and decide onthe best procedures for the shooting job at hand. What I hope to do ishelp you think about motion picture production professionally!STAGECOAC H, ...:AiJ'.----,••Relea seII'I)CAMERA ANGLES..•[INTRODUCTIONA motion picture is made up of many shots.Each shot requires placing the camera in the bestposition for viewing players , setting and action atthat particular moment in the narrative. Position-ing the camera - the camera angle - is influencedby several factors. Solutions to m an y problem s in-volving choice of camera angles may be reachedby thoughtful analysis of story requirements. Withexperience, decisions can be m ade almost intui-tively. The camera angle determines both audi-ence viewpoint and area covered in the shot. Eachtime the camera is moved to a new set-up, twoquestions m ust be answered: What is the bestviewpoint for filming th is portion of the event?How much area should be included in this shot?A carefully-chose n camera angle can heigh tendramatic visualization of the story. A carelessly-picked camera angle m ay distract or confuse theaudience by depicting the scene so th at its mean-ing is difficult to comprehend . Therefore, selectionof camera angles is a most important factor inconstructing a picture of continued in terest.In most instances, theatrical film scripts desig-nate the type of shot required for each scene in asequence. Some studiosprefer "masterscene"scripts in which all action and dialogue in anentire sequence is presented - bu t camera anglesare not indicated. In either case, the director hasthe prerogative of choosing his own angles inaccordance with his interp retation of the script.Since the cameraman positions the camera, it ishe who usu ally makes final decision on viewpointand area, based on the director's wishes. Directorsvary in their ap proach to the camera angle ques-tion : m an y will leave the fin al decis ion up to thecameraman once their request is made. Othersm ay be more camera-oriented and work moreclosely with the cameram an in arriving at theprecise camera placement for each sho t.When shooting from script, the non-theatricalcameraman and director may work in the samemanner. If working alone, however, the camera-man mu st call his own shots. When shoo ting doc-um entary films off-the -cuff, he has the furtherresponsibility of breaking down the event intoindividual shots, and deciding the type of shotrequired for each por tion of the action. In eithercase, the experience of the cameraman, his knowl-edge of the problems and his visual imagination,'will strongly influence the choice of camera angle.Both theatrical and non-theatrical film makersoften employ a "Production Designer" to preparea "story board" - a series of sketches of key inci-dents which suggest camera angle, camera andplayer movement, and comp ositional treatment.These sketches m ay be very simple - the merestoutlines; or very elaborate - in the case of highIICAMERA ANGLESTHE FIVE C'sTheatrical film scripte designate type of shot requi red for each see"a in se-quence. Prodecucn desunicr may .~lIppl!l sketches thnt suyyest how camera willbe placed and moved. Director of photography is responsible fOT precise place-ment of camera.bud get theatrical films ~ in which detailed colorrenderings of the scenes are closely followed bydirector and cameraman in setting up the sho t.A screen story is a series of continuousluchanging im ages which portray events from avariety of viewpoints. Choice of camera angl e canposition the audience closer to the action to viewa significa nt portion in a large close-up; fartheraway to appreciate the m agnificent gra ndeur of avast landscape; hiqltcr to look down upon a vastconstruction project ; lower to look up at the faceof a judge. Camera angle can shift viewpoint12from one player to another, as dr amatic emphasischanges durin g a scene ; travel alongside a gallop-ing horsem an as he escapes purs uers; move into adramatic scene, as story interest heightens; moveaway from gruesome setting depicting dea th anddes truction ; see otherwiseun seen microscopicworld ; observe the earth from a satellite in orbit.The audience may be positioned anywhere -tnstantlu to view anything from any ang le - at thediscretion of the cameraman and film editor. Suchis the power of the motion picture! Such is theimportance of choosing the right camera angle !THE FIVE C'sThe documentary cameraman shooting off-the-cuff has further responsibility of break-ing event into individual shots, and decid-ing type of shot (or each portion of action.Knowledge of editorial requirements is val-uable when filming without a script.SCENE, SHOT & SEQUENCEThe terms scene, shot and.~eqllence are some-times misunderstood.Scene defines the place or settin,q where theaction is laid . This expression is borrowed fromstage productions, where an act may be dividedinto several scenes, each of which is set in adifferent locale. A scene may consist of one shot orseries of shots depicting a continuous event.Shot defines a continuous view filmed by onecamera without interruption. Each shot is a take.When additional shots of the same actio n arefilmed from the same set-up -because of tech -nical or dramatic mistakes - the subsequent shotsare called re-takes. If the set-up is changed in anyway - camera moved, lens changed, or differentaction filmed - it is a new shot, not are-take.A sequence is a series of scenes, or shots, com -plete in itself. A sequence may occur in a ; inglesetting, or in several settings. Action should matchin a seque nce whenever it continues across sev-eral consecutive shots with straight cuts - so thatit depicts the event in a continuous manner, as inreal life. A sequence may begin as an exteriorscene, and continue inside a building, as the play-ers enter and settle down to talk or perform. ACAMERA ANGLESsequence may begin or end with a fade or dis-solve; or it may be straight-cut with bracketingsequences.Confusion arises when the terms scene andshot are used interchangeably. Individual shots ina scri pt are referred to as scenes. But, a masterscene script would require a number of shots tofilm the entire event. In such cases, a single scenenumber m ay be used and the sho ts design ated byletters a, b, c, etc . While production personnelmay consider a single take as a shot, they refer tothe shot by scene number. For practical purposes,therefore, scene and shot arcgenerally inter-changeable.A shot - or a portion of a shot - is also refer-red to as a cut. This term is derived from a portionof a shot which is cut out and used separately -such as a cut of a player's silent reaction removedfrom a dialogue sequence.TYPES OF CAMERA ANGLESOBJECTIVESUBJECTIVEPOINT-OF-VIEWOBJECTIVE CAMERA ANGLESThe objective camera filmsfrom a sidelineviewpoint. The audience views the event throughThis documentary shot -depicting con-struction of a freeway -is filmed fromobjective camera angle, sometimes refer-red to as "audience point of view."13CAMERA ANGLES THE FIVE C's t h e e y e s o f a n u n s e e n ~ , a s g e m d r o p ping. Cammamen and directors 5ametimes refer to this candid amma treatment as the adience point of view. Since they do not present the event horn the viewpoint of anyone within the scerle, objective camera angles ax jxnpsrsonal. People photographed appear unaware of the camera and never look directly h t o the lens. Should a player look inadvertently into the lens, even with a side ways glance, the same must be retaken -if objee tive angle is maintained. Most m o m @m- m e s are Hmed h n n ubjedw camera a @ ~ . S U B J E m WRA ANGLES The audience parlidph fn the screen exphmce. The viewer fs placed in the picture, eitber on his own as an. active participant, or by trading places with a per- son in the picture and seeing the event through his eyes. The viewer is also involved in the picture when anyone in the scene boks directIy k t o the camera lens - thus estddishing a pdrmer- viewer eye-beye relationship. The subjecdve camera may -film the event In the fdhdag ways : The cumera acts as the eyes of the audkm #a Cansera may act as eye of audience to place viewer aboard ahplane, If shot is preceded bg close-up of person h u n g out win- - viava udll~cmpehend that he is seeing whut screen phgm ees. jlnnPj: leap ov& a fkF- ' ~ : j . i & - , pe- ram; j* +&-.&.;a horse ace.; fan d* a &quitah - m go for a quiet s.ldLin the park;- : -. , .. - .'"..., $.&. . , ..'.>. <.-, ...,-.- -- - ? . -, . , ~~a.~~~f$~es~~a~in t h Wiii ,*. the -t WpJ, the &s,of apartiWar+-aith nham he &nti- fies. When subjective .&Q& previously descrilh are .preceded by ac1osetup d a pmoa lqokfng OR- screen, .the viewer will comprehend &at he is seeing what iihe sawn playm sees. The shae,itsdf may & - w e d fn.pneci&i* same--warmer, but the-viewer is no longer cm .his own - be has THE FIVE C'sCAMERA ANGLES- - ." -.- - -.." ...Tile scene following drat of an individuallooking ott-screen will be interpreted byaudience as what tluu: person sees. Tilemall aI,ove is looking up -at a buildingfilmed from hi s poin t-oi-uieui. Upward ordown ward points of view of a player maybe simulated by similar camera angling.~:~.. ~.. _,~_'t--"'S!'lt""I.I·"'f". :A ,\.....'"I. IIIU'iDifficul ties do arise, however, when the ca merareplaces a player who mu st relate with otherplayers in the scene. Whenever other players inthe scene look into the eyes of the subjective'player they mu st look directly into the lens.Th e unexpected appearance of a player lookingdirectly into the lens startles the audience, be-cause they suddenly become aware of the camera.It is as if the people being filmed detected theeavesdropping camera. Such treatment can provevery distr acting, and may disrupt the story-telling.Viewer may trade places wi th person inpicture if s110t above is followed by poin t-of-view shot of OpeTation. P.o.v. shots arebest for training films becau se they placeviewers in workers' positions.traded positions with the on-screen player to viewthe event as he sees it.If an airplane pilot, jockey or mountain climberis established in the scene, the following subjec-tive shot is what that person sees. The spectatormay experience the same sensations, because heis seeing the scene through screen player's eyes.In the Following examples, the subjective shotswill be the same _ providing the viewer is lookingat inanimate objects, empty settings, or event s inwhich people in the picture do llOt relate directlywith the camera. A clock on the wall. an un occu-pied room , an action ride, or people in the park -will all appear the same, regardl ess of whetherthe viewer sees the scene directl y, or through theeyes of a person in the picture. Th e thrilling mov-ing camera ride isa lw(/y.~ subjective, but staticshots m ay be objective or subjective.,1 according tothe way they arc edited. Th e clock, the room , orthe park seene may be interpreted as objective,unless a close-up of a player is shown looking:off-screen. The audience will thenunderstandthat what they see is what player sees in the scene.Few shooting or editing problems are encoun-tered when a subjective shot is inserted in anobjective sequence; whether or not a person , withwhom the audience can iden tify. is shown.15CAMERA ANGLES""""""""'..""'""Lady In T he La ue" used subjective cam-era, which traded ntacee with dctective-ucro. He was seen hy audience on ly w henintroduced, and when reflected in mirrors.16THE FIVE C'sTheaudience is shockedwhen it is abruptlyswitche d from an unseen observer outside thepicture (looking at players who arc seeminglyunaware of the camera's presence), to a partici-pant in the pic ture (directly relating with theplayers ). The viewer may wan t to become emo-tionally involved in the story, bu t he m ay be un-comfortably surprised when required to becomeactively involved with the players !A sudden switch from an objective to a sub-jective look-into-the-lens shot is startling inadramatic film because the audience is unpreparedfor such treatment. Viewers cannot Immediatelyadjust to act ive participation in the event. Wh enthc camera returns to objective fllmtng, the audi-ence will again have to re-orient itself. The sub-[ccttve treatment is rarely successful when theaudience is asked abru ptly to trade places with aTHE FIVE C'sCAMERA ANGLESplayer, with all the other perfo rmers in the scenelooking directly at him .If an entire sequence, or a complete picture isfilmed subjectively, other difficulties arise. Sin cethe camera replaces the player, it must behavelike the player, and sec what he sees through hiseyes at all times. This necessitates continuousfilming with a mobile camera, which looks aboutas the player moves . sits , stands or looks at an-other player. Normal editing techniques may Plotbe used, because filming cannot be interrupted.The subjective player m ay be introduced in anobjective sho t; but when the camera replaces him ,the audience mus t view euerut hinq subjectively,as he sees it. While the person of the subjectiveplayer is no longer seen , his reflection may be visi-ble in a mirror, a window or a pool of water. Thecamera must move to simulate the player's move-.....................,...Entire cast had to look directly into lenswh enever relatinc with hero. The audiencedid not see nero:e reactions . Only his voicewas heard,17CAMERA ANGLESment s as he walks around. The player (camera)may en ter a room , look about, sit down , conver sewith another player , look at his own hand lightinga cigarette , look down at an ash tray, turn hishead to look at a ringing telephone. get up andwalk out. The player, or players, in the scene mustlook directly into the lens whenlooking intothe subjective player's eyes during dialogue ex-changes, or otherwise relating with him.W hen heroine m ade love to hero - she hadto periorm wit h tile camera lens!Th e result of this continuous filming treatmentis a great deal of useless footage between signifi-cant actions -which often can not be edited outbecause continuity would be disru pted. Subjectiveplayer technique used in an entire theatrical pic-ture, usu ally results in a dull effect, because iteliminates the player's face and does not show hisreact ion s to other player's dialogue or actions . Theaudience is teased because they actually see onlyhalf of the normal interchange between players.While subjective treatment may be interesti ng inthe beginning, it becomes boring, if extended.Th ere are a few exceptions to the no-editingrule. Th ese permtt orthodox editing of a subjectivesequence whenever the subjective player recallsan event in a flashback. Subjective flashb acksmay be presented in fragm ented fashion, becausea person telling a story need relate only significanthighli ghts, not every single move or action . A sub-jective sequence may also be edited whenever a18THE FIVE C'sSubjective camera is employed on rarecccestcns in dram atic theatrical featurefilms , In "Ship of Fools" narrator-plauer(atright above ) relates withafellowpwyer; and directly Witll tile audience.below, to comment on story.player is m entally or otherwise unbalanced be-cause of drinks, drugs or illness. The audiencewill under stand , in such cases, th at the player.receives im pressions, rather th an a continuousclear picture, of what is happening. The subjec-tive player may. therefore, see events through hismind's eye as a series of individu al im ages, in-stead of a continuous happening.Normal editing may be employed in these in-stances, rather than continuous camera filmingotherwise required. A direct cut may be made to a

FAQs

What are the five C's of Cinematography explain? ›

The 5 Cs are Camera angles, Continuity, Cutting, Close-ups, and Composition. Let's go over them. Camera Angles. We can never forget that the camera is the viewer's eyes.

What are the 5 components of cinematography? ›

Each concept must be carefully considered when producing, shooting and editing a project to ensure the highest quality outcome.
  • Camera Angles. The camera angle is vital to a stories narrative and the camera positioning helps to drive the story forward. ...
  • Continuity. ...
  • Cutting. ...
  • Close-ups. ...
  • Composition.
May 26, 2017

What is the purpose of camerawork in films? ›

cinematography, the art and technology of motion-picture photography. It involves such techniques as the general composition of a scene; the lighting of the set or location; the choice of cameras, lenses, filters, and film stock; the camera angle and movements; and the integration of any special effects.

Videos

1. Howrah Theke Santragachi I Bandhu ( বন্ধু ) | Prosenjit Chatterjee | Swastika | Movie Song
(Eskay Movies)
2. Dishum Dishum | 13th August 2022
(TV Derana)
3. Creating Script Sides PDF for Film Production - Tutorial
(SetHero)
4. Nerf War: 6 Million Subscribers
(PDK Films)
5. Grundsteuerreform 2022: Grundsteuererklärung ausfüllen Elster – Ausfüllhilfe Grundsteuer 2022 Elster
(FinanzNerd)
6. GoTranscript - gotranscript test answers 13 August 2022 | August 13, 2022
(GoTranscript Test)

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Rob Wisoky

Last Updated: 10/06/2022

Views: 5241

Rating: 4.8 / 5 (48 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Rob Wisoky

Birthday: 1994-09-30

Address: 5789 Michel Vista, West Domenic, OR 80464-9452

Phone: +97313824072371

Job: Education Orchestrator

Hobby: Lockpicking, Crocheting, Baton twirling, Video gaming, Jogging, Whittling, Model building

Introduction: My name is Rob Wisoky, I am a smiling, helpful, encouraging, zealous, energetic, faithful, fantastic person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.